Make a Difference with education, and be the best.

Make a Difference with education, and be the best.

Putting Children First. Preparing Children For Success In Life

Putting Children First. Preparing Children For Success In Life

How you can get top grades, to get a best job.

How you can get top grades, to get a best job.

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Thursday, 25 August 2022

HOW TO TELL WILD ANIMALS

Rajesh Konwar

HOW TO TELL WILD ANIMALS

By Carolyn Wells

HOW TO TELL WILD ANIMALS


This poem by Carolyn Wells is about the perilous ways of identifying wild animals. The poet attempts to differentiate one animal from another in a humorous way. The poet suggests that being so near to these wild beasts is quite dangerous. The poem is, thus, quite educative because it informs us about various features of wild animals.

EXPLANATION

STANZA 1

If ever you ...........it is the Asian Lion

The poet warns the readers about the wild beasts that can be found in the jungle. He says that if you go to any forest in the East, you will most certainly encounter a gigantic and terrifying beast charging at you. You will notice that it is brownish-yellow in colour. And if that beast roars at you and you feel like you are going to die due to fear, you will come to know that it is the Asian Lion.

 

 STANZA 2

Or if you ...........The Bengal Tiger to discern.

According to the poet, it is very likely that while roaming in the forest, you are greeted by a wild beast. This wild animal is coated in black stripes on a yellow hide and has a beautiful body. The poet warns the readers that if they notice this beast and that if it eats them, this simple rule will teach them that it is a ‘Bengal Tiger.’

 

STANZA 3

If strolling forth, ...........lep and lep again.

The poet here helps the readers in identifying a leopard. He claims that if you go for a walk in the forest, you might encounter a beast with blotches on its skin. When this dangerous beast jumps at you, you will realise it is a leopard because it will continue to jump on you and tear you apart. Furthermore, screaming or crying in pain will be futile because it will continue to pounce on you. So, be careful and don’t allow it to jump on you.

 

STANZA 4

If when you’re ...........one more caress.

The poet says that you may come across a creature while walking in your yard. Consider this creature to be a bear if it hugs you very tightly. Bears are thought to be good wrestlers with the ability to give a really tight hug. Although a friendly hug is referred to as a bear hug, if a real bear hugs you, it may not feel friendly at all. The bear hugs a man to kill him. The poet further adds that if you are ever in doubt, the bear will embrace you again till death.

 

STANZA 5

Though to distinguish ...........they’re crocodiles.

According to the poet, a novice may be baffled and confused, and so may be unable to distinguish between the various wild animals. Hence, the poet helps in distinguishing the crocodile from the hyena. He says that a hyena always laughs while it swallows its prey. The voice of a laughing hyena sounds similar to that of human. A crocodile, on the other hand, is supposed to shed tears while eating its prey. Thus, the poet, warns the readers not to wait for a hyena to laugh or a crocodile to weep.

 

STANZA 6

The true Chameleon ...........Chameleon you see.

In this stanza, the poet describes a chameleon. A chameleon, according to him, is a little garden lizard. It doesn’t have ears or wings. The poet, further, says that if you can't see a thing on the tree, a chameleon is probably sitting there. A chameleon is an expert of camouflage (master of disguise). It changes colour depending on its surroundings and is thus difficult to see. The ability to disguise helps the lizard in saving it from hunters.

 

 

Thursday, 21 July 2022

TENSE

Rajesh Konwar

 TENSE

The English noun ‘tense’ is derived from the Old French tens "time" (spelt temps in contemporary French), which is derived from the Latin tempus "time."

Tense is defined as the form of the verb that shows or indicates the time of action. In other words, 'tense' denotes the relationship between an action and its time of occurrence. 'Time' refers to the duration of work and 'action' refers to the work/task done. The tense of a verb shows the time of an action or state of being. Different forms of verbs show different tenses.

There are three phases of time:

1. Present (time that is now)

2. Past (time that has passed)

3. Future (time that is yet to come)

Consider the sentences that follow.

Examples: 1. Rahul eats a mango. (An action of present tense – verb ‘eats’ shows the tense).

2. Hari was in the school. (A state of being in school – verb ‘was’ shows the tense).

3. He will eat a mango. (An action of future tense).

CLASSIFICATION OF TENSES

There are three main tenses: 1. Present Tense, 2. Past Tense, and 3. Future tense.

Each tense is further subdivided into four different forms. Examine any one of the charts below to learn more about all tenses and their forms.

1.

TENSE


2.

TENSE


Let us go over this in detail.

1. Present Indefinite Tense (also called Simple Present Tense.)

This tense is used in the following ways.

(a) To express habitual action/habit or custom. In other words, the Simple Present tense is used to indicate an action in the present time that is generally done on a regular basis. Examples: 1. I watch television on Sunday. 2. I take exercise every morning.

(b) To discuss a general or universal truth. Also, any scientific fact is expressed using the Simple Present tense. Examples: 1. The sun sets in the west. 2. Honesty is the best policy.

(c) To indicate a future event which is part of a plan or arrangement. Examples: 1. The school reopens next week. 2. The examination starts next month.

(d) To introduce quotes with the verb ‘says.’ Examples: 1. Einstein says, “Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you must keep moving.” 2.Nelson Mandela says, “A winner is a dreamer who never gives up.”

(e) Vivid narration, as a substitute for the simple past. In other words, we use the simple present tense to express the ‘graphical truth’ or the ‘historical truth.’ Examples: 1. The king rushes to the battlefield. 2. Ravana fights bravely.

(f) To use exclamatory sentences that begin with ‘here’ or ‘there’. Examples: 1. Here comes our teacher! 2. There he goes!  

(g) In the case of time clauses and conditional clauses, instead of simple future. Examples: 1. If it rains, I shall not go out. 2. If you do not work hard, you will fail.

RULES FOR AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Singular subject + V1 (Base/Present Form of the verb) + s/es (If the subject is the third person) + O

Examples: 1. I play cricket. 2. He plays football.

2. Plural subject + V1 (Base/Present Form of the verb) + O

Examples: 1. We study in this school. 2. They study in that school.

RULES FOR NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Singular subject + do/does not (‘does’ is used if the subject is the third person) + V1 (Base/Present Form of the verb)  + O

Examples: I do not play cricket. 2. Rebati does not play tennis.

2. Plural subject + do not + V1 (Base/Present Form of the verb)  + O

Example: They do not like cricket.

RULES FOR INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Do/Does (‘does’ is used if the subject is the third person) + Subject + V1 (Base/Present Form of the verb)  + O?

Examples: 1. Do you play cricket? 2. Does she wash clothes?

2. Do + Subject + V1 (Base/Present Form of the verb)  + O?

Example: 1. Do they do the homework regularly?

3. Question word + Do/Does (‘does’ is used if the subject is the third person) + Subject + V1 (Base/Present Form of the verb)  + O?

Example: 1. Whom do you teach? 2. Why does she go there?

 

2. Past Indefinite Tense (also called Simple Past Tense.)

The Past Indefinite or the Simple Past test is used:

(a) To indicate a previously performed action and to report completed actions. It is frequently used in recounts and narratives. Example: 1. I met him last week. 2. I visited my uncle 2 months ago.

(b) To indicate past habits or repeated events that are now over. Examples: 1. I always rode to school when I was young. 2. I studied French when I was a child.

(c) The habitual past can also be expressed by using ‘used to.’ Examples: 1. I used to go swimming when I was a child. 2. My father used to read the Mahabharata every day.

(d) The Simple Past tense is sometimes used without an adverb of time. In such cases, the time may be assumed or indicated by the context. Example: 1. I learnt English in New York.

(e) To indicate another action that occurred in the middle of a longer action. Examples: 1. He came while I was watching my favourite movie. 2. I was studying when she called.

RULES FOR AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Subject + V2 (Second Form or the Past Form of the verb) + O

Example: I played cricket yesterday.

RULES FOR NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

 Subject + did not + V1 (First form or the Present Form of the verb) + O

Example: I did not play cricket.

RULES FOR INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Did + Subject + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + O?

Example: Did you play cricket?

2. Question word + Did + Subject + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + O?

Example: What did you play?

3. Future Indefinite Tense (also called Simple Future Tense.)

The Future Indefinite or the Simple Future tense is used:

(a) To say or express what we believe or think will happen in future. Examples: 1. They will go to school. 2. We will play the match.

(b) To state or express things which we cannot control and are factual. Example: The Sun will rise at 6:00 AM.

(c) To indicate an instant decision. Example: It is your birthday. I shall give you a gift.

RULES FOR AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES.

Subject + shall/will + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + O.

Example: 1. He will play the match. 2. I shall go there.

NOTE: ‘shall’ is used in the case of First Person Pronouns.

RULES FOR NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

Subject + shall/will + not + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + O.

Example: 1. He will not play the match. 2. I shall not go there.

NOTE: ‘shall’ is used in the case of First Person Pronouns.

RULES FOR INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Will/shall + Subject + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + O?

Example: Will he play the match?

2. Question word + Will/shall + Subject + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + O?

Example: What will you do there?

4. Present Continuous Tense (also called Present Progressive Tense.)

The Present Continuous or Present Progressive tense is used:

(a)  To describe an ongoing action and the continuation of the action. Examples: 1. She is singing a song. 2. We are reading a book.

(b) An action that is not happening at the time of speaking but is in progress. Examples: 1. He is working in this company. 2. They are studying in this school.

(c) To denote a persistent and undesirable or bad habit, particularly with adverbs such as ‘always’, ‘continually’, ‘constantly’, etc. Example: He is constantly staring at me.

(d) To indicate an action that has been pre-arranged to take place in the near future. Examples: 1. I am going to organise the function. 2. The wedding is going to take place on Wednesday.

RULES FOR AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Singular subject + am/is + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

Examples: 1. I am reading a book. 2. She is singing a song.

2. Plural subject + are + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

Example: They are going to school.

RULES FOR NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Singular subject + am/is + not + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

Examples: 1. I am not going to school. 2. He is not reading the book.

2. Plural subject + are + not + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

Example: They are not attending the meeting.

RULES FOR INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Am/is/are + Subject + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

Examples: 1. Are you reading this book? 2. Is she going to school?

2. Question word + am/is/are + Subject + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

Examples: 1. What is Savita doing? 2. Why are you doing this?

5. Past Continuous Tense (also called Past Progressive Tense.)

The Past Continuous or Past Progressive tense is used:

(a) To refer to an action that was happening at some time in the past. The time of action may or may not be specified. Example: We were doing our homework.

(b) Used with ‘always’, ‘continually’, etc. for persistent habits in the past. Example: He was always sulking.

(c) The Past Continuous tense is also used for an action that was going on during a given period or at a period of time in the past. Example: While I was filling in the hole, the dog was digging another.

RULES FOR AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Singular subject + was + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

Example: I was doing my homework.

2. Plural subject + were + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

Example: They were going to school.

RULES FOR NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Singular subject + was + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

Example: I was doing my homework.

1. Singular subject + was + not + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

Example: I was not doing my homework.

2. Plural subject + were + not + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

Example: They were not going to school.

RULES FOR INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Was/were + Subject V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O?

Examples: 1. Was he reading the book? 2. Were you reading the book?

2. Question word + Was/Were + subject + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O?

Examples: 1. Why was she going there? 2. What were you doing there?

6. Future Continuous Tense (also called Future Progressive Tense.)

The Future Continuous or Future Progressive Tense is used:

(a) To denote an activity or action that will take place in the normal course. Example: mother will be cooking the food tonight.

(b) To indicate an action that will be in progress at some point of time in the future. Example: We shall be watching the movie at this time tomorrow.

RULES FOR AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES.

Subject + Shall/will + be + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

NOTE: ‘shall’ is used in the case of First Person Pronouns.

Examples: 1. I shall be listening to my teacher. 2. Next year my father will be going to the USA.

RULES FOR NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

Subject + Shall/will + not + be + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O.

NOTE: ‘shall’ is used in the case of First Person Pronouns.

Examples: 1. They will not be studying in this college. 2. I shall not be attending the party.

RULES FOR INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Will/shall + Subject + be + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O?

Example: Will they be studying in this college?

2. Question word + Will/shall + Subject + be + V1 (First Form or the Present Form of the verb) + ing + O?

Example: How long will you be studying?

7. Present perfect Tense.

The Present Perfect tense is used:

(a) To express a recently accomplished action. Examples: 1. They have won the match. 1. I have just come.

 (b) To describe an action whose time is not given. Examples; 1. Have you ever met her? 2. I have done it.

(c) To describe past events whose effect still exists. Example - We have won the match and now we are happy.

(d) To show how a previous event relates to the present. Example: I have visited the place, so I can tell you the way to this place. 

RULES FOR AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES.

Subject + Have/Has + V3 (third or the past participle form of the verb) + O

1. I have gone to the market. 2. She has gone to the market.

RULES FOR NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

Subject + have/Has + Not + V3 (third or the past participle form of the verb) + O

1. I have not gone to the market 2. She has not gone to the market.

RULES FOR INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

1. Have/Has + Subject + V3 (third or the past participle form of the verb) + O

1. Has she gone to the market? 2. have you gone to the market?

2. Question word + Have/Has + Subject + V3 (third or the past participle form of the verb) + O

1. Where have you gone? 2. has she seen the Tajmahal?

8. Past perfect Tense.

The Past Perfect Tense is used:

(a) To indicate an action that was completed before a definite time or before another action that took place in the past. For example, She reached here after you had gone.

(b) It indicates desires in the past that have not been fulfilled. For example, I wish I had not wasted my money.

(c) It expresses those conditions of the past that were impossible to fulfil. For example, If you had invited him, he would have come.  

Tuesday, 19 July 2022

RANGA'S MARRIAGE

Rajesh Konwar

RANGA’S MARRIAGE

RANGA'S MARRIAGE


Ranga is a young boy from the village of Hoshali in Mysore. He goes to Bangalore to pursue an English Medium education. When he returned to the village, all the residents flocked to his place to see if the youngster had changed. However, to their disappointment, Ranga is the same as he was before.

He even greeted everyone with a Namaskar before they all left. Hoshali is a nice village with excellent mangoes. It is a small village that is not even well-known. After the villagers leave Ranga’s house, the narrator stays back to speak with him.

As a result of their conversation, the narrator decided it would be a good idea to find a suitable girl for Ranga, who is not yet thinking about marriage and wishes to marry only a mature and admirable girl. As a result, the narrator decides that he will undoubtedly get Ranga married. He believes that Ratna would be a perfect match for Ranga. Ratna is from a big town and is adept at musical instruments like the veena and the harmonium. 

Thus, he decided to call Ratna on purpose while Ranga was visiting. ranga was taken aback when he saw ratna. However, the narrator lied to Ranga about her marital status. This disappointed Ranga since he had begun to like her. The narrator planned to take Ranga to an astrologer.

The narrator had already made plans with an astrologer, and everything was well-planned. So, the astrologer asked Ranga questions which enabled him to admit the fact that he liked Ratna. The problem of her marriage was at the forefront. Nonetheless, the astrologer informed Ranga that he was in love with a girl whose name resembled Ratna. Ranga was overjoyed, yet saddened again because she was not available.

After confirmation that Ranga loved Ratna, the narrator decided to arrange their marriage. The narrator visited Ratna’s house to request her hand in marriage to Ranga. Finally, the story jumps forward ten years. Ranga is paying a visit to the narrator to celebrate his son’s birthday. Ranga and Ratna got married and Ranga named their son after the narrator, who arranged their marriage.

To summarise, we learn about the beauty of a small community, its rituals and traditions, and the struggle to preserve our culture against westernisation.

Q: Comment on the influence of English—the language and the way of life—on Indian life as reflected in the story. What is the narrator’s attitude to English?
Answer: The story illustrates the traditional Indian way of life when just a few people spoke English. Those who knew it never used its words while speaking Kannad. People used to be simple and behaved similarly to a flock of sheep. The narrator was the true admirer of his village Hosahalli.

He was well-cultured and kind. He valued his mother tongue. He spoke English when it was necessary. The narrator feels it disgraceful to use English words when speaking Kannada. He is also feeling delighted while describing how, during the holidays, one can see many people in the village on every street speaking English.

Q: Astrologers’ perceptions are based more on hearsay and conjecture than what they learn from the study of the stars. Comment with reference to the story.
Answer: Answer: Most astrologers rely on hearsay or information gathered from their clients. The innocent client believes that his astrologer is reading his stars, but the deceitful fellow robs innocent people's faces. The same happens in the story when Shyam, the narrator instructs Shastri to regurgitate the muddled facts in front of Rangappa that Ratna would be the only eligible match for him based on the star cast. Because of the dramatic mockery enacted by Shyam and Shastri, Ranga listened to his heart and married Ratna. He got so influenced that he named his son ‘Shyam’ after the narrator.

Q: Indian society has moved a long way from the way the marriage is arranged in the story. Discuss.
Answer: In today’s world, every Indian is well-educated and cultured. As one's knowledge expands, so do one's expectations or vision. This deep thought existed in the narrator's mind and gave birth to the story. The entire story has been plotted by the narrator to let Ranga realize the marriageable age and how to find the ideal mate. He knocked at Ranga’s heart and he welcomed Ratna in. Ranga might have run away if the narrator had just proposed for Ratna.

Q: What kind of a person do you think the narrator is?
Answer: In Today’s self-centred fast world no one pains for others. But the narrator is a different man. He not only devotes his time but also Ranga’s wedding selflessly. In fact, he extends mature and experienced assistance to Rang's fragile heart and young mind in choosing a suitable life partner. As a reward for his altruistic act, Ranga named his son Shyam after the narrator’s name.

Q. Why has the narrator not given some mouth-filling title to his story ‘Ranga’s Marriage’?

Answer: The narrator has not given his story some mouth-filling or catchy title like ‘Jagannatha’s Vijaya’ or ‘Girija Kalyana’ because this is not a story about Jagannatha’s victory or Girija’s wedding. It's about Ranga's marriage.

Q. What does the narrator say about Hosahalli?

Answer: The action takes place in Hosahalli village. The sahib in England and Indian writers have not made any mention of it in their Geography books. It is not depicted on any map by any cartographer. The narrator emphasises its importance by comparing it with the preparation of a festival meal known as Karigadabu.

Q. Mention two distinctive features of village Hosahalli.

Answer: In the village Hosahalli, there are a few mango trees. One comes to know the extreme potency of sourness if one happens to taste a raw mango from one of them. Then, there is a creeper growing in the water of the village pond. One will not require the afternoon meal if one consumes two leaves from the creeper while bathing in the pond.

Q. What are the two special products of Hosahalli and in what respect?

Answer: The two special products of Hosahalli are mentioned below. First, there is the raw mango. The Brahmarandhra, or the sensitive area of the child's head where the skull bones subsequently attach, is certain to feel the sourness of its bites. The second speciality is a creeper that grows in the water of the village pond. Its flowers are a visual feast. One's entire family can have the midday meal on its two leaves.

Q. Describe the narrator’s experience of tasting a raw mango from the mango trees growing in the village.

Answer: Once the narrator brought a raw mango home and chutney was prepared with it. The entire family tasted it. They had a severe cough. The narrator had visited the doctor to get cough medicine.

Q: Ranga possessed certain qualities that endeared him to Shyama, the narrator. Mention three qualities.

Answer: Ranga was well educated; he respected his tradition and did not remove his sacred thread; he was respectful of elders.

Q: Describe the village scene when Ranga returned from Bangalore.

Answer: People came to see Ranga out of curiosity. He had gone to Bangalore to study. People were curious if his education had changed him.

Q: How did the narrator let Ranga have a glimpse of Ratna?

Answer: The narrator asked Rama Rao’s wife (Ratna’s aunt) to send her to his house to get some buttermilk. When Ratna came, he sent for Ranga. He asked Ratna to sit a while and sing a song. Ranga came while she was singing. His curiosity and interest were roused. 

Q: Astrologers’ perceptions are based more on hearsay and conjecture than what they learn from the study of the stars. Comment with reference to the story.

Answer: The astrologer plays an important part in the story ‘Ranga’s Marriage’. Shyama, the narrator wanted to bring about the marriage of Ratna to Ranga.
Shyama met an astrologer and gave him certain instructions. Then he took Ranga to meet him.
The astrologer told him that the girl he was thinking about could be his if he approached the family. Ranga was able to marry Ratna because of what the astrologer said. Astrologers do not always say what the stars tell.

Q: Why is there no mention of Hosahalli in any Geography book?

Answer: Hosahalli is not mentioned by the English experts and therefore not by Indians either. As a result, Hosahalli is not in geography books or atlases.

Q: Did Ranga select his bride according to the views he held on the subject of marriage?

Answer: No. Ranga did not select his bride according to the new fanged ideas on marriage he had acquired. He fell for an eleven-year-old girl Ratna and married her.

Q: Why was Ranga’s homecoming a great event?

Answer: Ranga’s homecoming was a great event for the people in the village. People came to see Ranga out of curiosity. He had gone to Bangalore to study. People were curious if his education had changed him.

Q: Why does the narrator compare himself to a he-goat and Ranga to a lion?

Answer: The narrator referred to a story in which a clever he-goat was able to scare away a lion. Here, he himself is the shrewd goat who has laid a plot for Ranga’s marriage. Ranga, though like a lion, was unable to escape the wiles of the clever goat.

Q: What were Ranga’s ideas about marriage? Do you find any change in them at the end of the story? How?

Answer: Ranga was the accountant’s son and the first person to go out of Hosahalli for education. He was the most eligible bachelor in the town.
When he returned from the city, he said he would marry when he found the ‘right girl. The ‘right girl’ would be mature, and not likely to misunderstand him. Besides, he felt that a man should marry the girl he admired.
But Ranga did not adhere strictly to his views. He was attracted to Ratna, the eleven-year-old niece of Rama Rao and ended up marrying her.

Q: Comment on the influence of English—the language and the way of life—on Indian life as reflected in the story. What is the narrator’s attitude to English?

Answer: The narrator of the story Shyama lived in a remote village in Karnataka. He has written of the time when the English language was not used in the village. Not many knew English or used English words in their speech. Therefore when the accountant sent his son Ranga to Bangalore to study, it was a revolutionary step. When Ranga returned to his village everyone came out to see if he had changed due to the influence of his education. Ranga showed the influence of English on his thinking when he named his child after Shyama who had brought about his marriage. The narrator does not know English. He is sarcastic towards and resentful of the English language.

 

 

Thursday, 30 June 2022

THE AILING PLANET

Rajesh Konwar

 THE AILING PLANET: THE GREEN MOVEMENT’S ROLE

THE AILING PLANET

SUMMARY

The author summarizes the change in the perception of the societies from a materialistic to a comprehensive and ecological perspective of this world. According to the article, humans are now concerned about the environment. In this way of perception, our planet is considered a living organism. People believe it has its own metabolic functioning, just like all other living entities.

The author then describes the concept of Sustainable growth. “Meets the wants of the current time, without losing the ability of upcoming generations to meet their needs and fulfil them”. Furthermore, we must use the natural resources in such a way that we meet our needs while also conserving these resources for future generations. People consider themselves as a partner and not as a member of this planet. In reality, we are partners with millions of other organisms on our planet.

According to the book Global Economic Prospect, the planet’s major biological systems are four: fisheries, forests, croplands, and grasslands. These include almost all the raw materials used in industry today. These resources are being used in an unsustainable manner. The writer is then concerned about the loss of the forest land. The dung which we should use as a natural fertilizer, we are generally using to produce fuel. The soil, on the other hand, is not receiving natural fertilizer.

The writer then alludes to Article 48A of the Indian Constitution. According to Article 48A, the state is responsible for protecting and improving the forest and wildlife. However, they do not impose the law appropriately. Then the writer refers to a Parliamentary committee report that states that 3.7 million acres of forest are lost every year. The United Nations warns that the environment has worsened to the point where it is critical in many of the 88 countries studied.

The population is growing at an alarming rate. the two most appropriate solutions to people's issues are development and growth. Development is a difficult task with such a large population. We need proper family planning to control the situation of overpopulation. There is an urgent need to regulate the world's population. The writer at this point once more repeats the positive change in view of the people regarding ecology. Industries must also take responsibility for a better ecosystem.

To summarise, the ailing planet: the green movement’s role, it tells us about how the world is in critical condition and how we must do our best to save it. 

Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.

a holistic and ecological view - It refers to the point of view that advocates for the preservation of the planet. The holistic and ecological perspective refers to comprehending the significance of the earth’s resources and environment for future generations.

inter alia - among other things or as well as other things.

sustainable development - A balanced development that serves the needs of the present/today while also considering the needs of future generations.

decimated - to reduce drastically in number.

languish - many species are ignored or go unrecognised.

catastrophic depletion - a severe and harmful reduction/decrease in the number of something.

ignominious darkness - disgraced or dishonoured since no one knows or is aware of them.

transcending concern - a concern that surpasses/transcends generation, and boundaries. It is about the present as well as the future; it is about people as well as the planet.

Q: Locate the lines in the text that support the title. 'The Ailing Planet'

Answer: The lines that support the title of the chapter are given below.

“The earth’s vital signs reveal a patient in declining health.”

 “Are we to leave our successors a scorched planet of advancing deserts, impoverished landscapes, and the ailing environment?”

 “…the environment has deteriorated so badly that it is ‘critical’ in many of the eighty-eight countries investigated”.

Q: What does the notice 'The world's most dangerous animal' at a cage in the zoo at Lusaka, Zambia, signify?

Answer: In the zoo at Lusaka, there is a cage labelled "The world’s most dangerous animal." However, there is no animal within the cage, only a mirror that reflects the visitor's/person's reflection.

The notice signifies that man is the most harmful creature on this planet. He is not only responsible for the planet's deterioration and resource depletion, but he also poses a threat to other living species. A human being is far more destructive and threatening to the ecology of the Earth than any other organism. Thus, the cage in a zoo in Lusaka, Zambia, merely attempts to draw our attention to the aforementioned fact.

Q: How are the earth’s principal biological systems being depleted ?
Answer: According to Mr Lester R Brown's book ‘The Global Economic Prospect’,  there are four major biological systems of the earth. These are fisheries, forests, grasslands, and croplands. They form the foundation of the global economic system. Apart from supplying our food, these four systems offer almost all of the raw material for industry except minerals and petroleum-derived synthetics.

However, in many parts of the world, human claims on these systems have reached an unsustainable level, impairing their productivity. When this occurs, fisheries collapse, forests disappear, grasslands are converted into barren wastelands and croplands deteriorate. In a protein-conscious and protein-hungry world, over-fishing is common every day. In poor countries, local forests are being decimated in order to procure firewood for cooking. That is why these four systems are being depleted.

Q: Why does the author agree that the growth of the world population is one of the strongest factors distorting the future of human society?
Answer: The author is correct in stating that global population growth is one of the strongest factors influencing the future of human society. The world's population is rapidly increasing. It took mankind more than a million years to reach the first billion. That was the world population around the year 1800. By the year 1900, a second billion was added. However, the twentieth century added another 3.7 billion. The current global population is estimated to be 5.7 billion.

The abnormal rise in the world population has a negative impact on the future of mankind. The population remains under control when incomes rise, education spreads and health improves leading to overall development. But if the current population growth continues, development may be possible. The rich get richer and the poor remain poor for want of control of the population. The rate of unemployment increases and the increasing number of people remain unemployed. It affects very badly the future of human society.

DISCUSS IN GROUPS.

Laws are never respected not enforced in India.

India, the world's largest democracy, is condemned for its easy attitude towards laws. In our country, laws are made but never followed nor enforced. For example, the Indian Constitution mentions that castism, untouchability and bonded labour will be abolished; however, these evils continue to exist openly even today. According to the author, Article 48A of the Indian Constitution propounds that “the State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country”. However, little is being done to promote this. Over the last five/six decades, we have witnessed a near “catastrophic depletion” of forests. Forests are disappearing at a rate of 3.7 million acres a year over the last few decades. Areas that are officially designated as forest land are actually devoid of trees. The actual rate of forest loss is eight times that indicated by the government statistics. 

 “Are we to leave our successors a scorched planet of advancing deserts, impoverished landscapes and an ailing environment?”

According to the text, the first Brandt Report raised the aforementioned question about the planet's deteriorating condition. Earth is like a “patient in declining health”. Excessive resource demand has resulted in the depletion of forests, grasslands, fisheries and croplands. Over-population has put a significant strain on the health of our planet. We must realise soon that it is solely our responsibility to preserve our planet in this “Era of Responsibility.” We must realise that the earth belongs to future generations just as much as it does to us. Rather than claiming it as our own, we should do everything we can to protect it for future generations. 

We have not inherited this earth from our forefathers; we have borrowed it from our children”

People's attitudes towards the environment have changed over the decades. Human perception has shifted to a “holistic and ecological view of the world”. Earth is a living organism with limited resources. These resources will not last forever. The earth has metabolic requirements that must be preserved. The term “sustainable development” refers to the need of meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the need of future generations. The present problems are not necessarily fatal, but they are a ‘passport to the future.’ This is the “Era of Responsibility” and we must act responsibly. We must realise that the earth belongs as much to the future generation as much as it belongs to us.

The problems of overpopulation directly affect our everyday life.

Every four days, the world population grows by one million people. With this ever-increasing population, development seems to be a distant dream. Over-population leads to the issues of poverty and unemployment. The vicious spiral of population and poverty will persist unless the root cause i.e. population is taken care of. It stifles the development of a country. It results in a considerably faster use of natural resources. The fossils consumed, the resources drained, the forests cleared, the heat produced, and the global warming caused are all the consequences of the world's rapidly rising population.

Q: Locate the following words in the text and study their connotation.

1. gripped the imagination of

 2. dawned upon

 3. ushered in

 4. passed into the current coin

 5. passport of the future

Answer:

1. gripped the imagination of: gained a lot of attention

2. dawned upon: for the first time became aware of it

3. ushered in: started the new idea

4. passed into current coin: have been brought into use

5. passport of the future: a thing that makes something possible or enables one to achieve it.

Answer in Brief

The words ‘grip’, ‘dawn’. ‘usher’, ‘coin’, and ‘passport’ has literal as well as figurative meaning. Write pairs of sentences using each word in the literal as well as figurative sense.

1) grip: a) She performed admirably throughout the rock-climbing session. She has a strong grip. b) The 'India Against corruption' movement has gripped the minds of Indians.

2) dawn: a) The day dawned with a clear sky. b) Suddenly, the idea dawned on him.

3) usher: a) The waiter ushered them to their seats. b) The Green Movement ushered in a new era of awareness.

 4) Coin: a) I have ten coins of Rs. 5. b) The term was coined by a famous philosopher.

Passport: a) he has recently got his passport made to visit his uncle in the USA. b) Education is the passport to a bright future.

Q: What is the Green Movement? Why has it become popular all over the world?

Answer: The Green Movement first emerged in New Zealand 1972 in. It has made the people aware that the earth is a living organism that needs preservation. It advises us to work together and co-exist with other species. The Green Movement approaches the situation holistically and aims to protect the environment while promoting tthe ongoing development.

Q: What is the holistic and ecological view of the world that has emerged in recent times?

Answer: The planet itself is seen as an organism that requires care from a holistic and ecological perspective. It has metabolic requirements and essential  processes that must be respected. 

Q: What awareness according to Nani Palkhivala is growing worldwide? Why?

Answer: The movement, that has captured the interest of the entire human race, is the global realisation that the earth is a living entity of which we are parts. It has its own metabolic needs and vital processes that need attention because the earth’s vital signs reveal its declining health.

Q: What is propagated by the concept of sustainable expansion?

Answer: In 1987, The World Commission on Environment and Development made the concept of sustainable development widely accepted. It emphasised the concept of development that satisfies the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs, i.e., without depleting the natural world of resources necessary for future generations.

Q: What is the global concern raised by Mr Lester R. Brown that threatens the very existence of man?

Answer: According to Mr Lester R. Brown, the primary biological systems of the earth are fisheries, forests, grasslands, and croplands, and these  systens serve as the foundation of the global economic system. They provide almost all of the raw materials for companies as well as our food. However, human activities are depleting the natural resources,  causing fisheries to the collapse and grasslands to vanish.

Q: What steps has the Indian government taken to ensure the protection of the environment? What is the impact?

Answer: By Article 48A of the Indian Constitution, The government of India mandates that the State shall make efforts to protect and improve the environment and safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. However, the law has not had the due impact because laws are neither respected nor upheld in India.

Q: What are the reasons that are leading to depletion of our natural resources?

Answer: In a society where people are concerned about protein, over-fishing is common. Local forests are being cut down in underdeveloped countries in order to supply firewood for cooking. As a result, in certain areas, firewood has become so expensive that fuel costs more than the food.

Q: The population in the world is growing at an alarming rate. Comment.

Answer: The future of human society is being distorted by the growing world population. Human population reached its first billion around the year 1800. By the year 1900, a second billion was added, and another 3.7 billion in the twentieth century. Tge current estimate of the world's population is 5.7 billion. The population of the world Every day the world grows by one million per day.

Q: Why is the growing population detrimental to the world’s progress?

Answer: Development will not be possible if the current rate of population growth continues. The rich get richer and the poor have more children, and this hampers their economic growth. More children do not mean more workers, merely more people without work. Population growth makes poverty more persistent. People would starve to death unless population growth is controlled. 

Q: “The earth’s vital signs reveal a patient in declining health.” What are these ‘vital signs’? Answer: According to a three-year assessment by the UN using satellites and aerial photography, the environment has worsened so badly that it is now considered "critical" in many of the 88 countries studied. The nearly catastrophic depletion of India's forests over the past forty years has bebeen emphasised in a recent report of our Parliament’s Estimates Committe. Reliabile data indicates that India is losing 3.7 million acres of forests every year. Several sizeable regions that are officially classified as forestland, “are already virtually treeless”. The actual loss of forests is estimated to be around eight times higher than the rate indicated by government statistics.

The ancient tropical forests that once covered the globe are now disappearing at a rate of forty to fifty million acres per year, and the growing use of dung for burning deprives the soil of an important natural fertilizer. According to the World Bank, a five-fold increase in the rate of forest planting is required to meet the anticipated demand for fuel wood.

Q: What do you mean by ‘sustainable development’? Answer: ‘Sustainable development’ is the only way to save the planet earth. It means that development should not be at the cost of the environment. The resources of the earth should be used with restraint so that they are available for future generations too.

Q: Who is ‘the world’s most dangerous animal’? Why is it called so?

Or
What does the notice ‘The world’s most dangerous animal’ at a cage in the zoo at Lusaka, Zambia signify? Answer: Human beings are the most dangerous to the environment. They cause more destruction to the environment than any other species.

Q: What are the earth’s principal biological systems? What is happening to them and what can be the results? Answer: Four systems – fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands – foundation of global economy, supply food – provide raw materials for industry Present status–Human claims of preservation are excessive – the productivity of these systems affected. Grasslands becoming wastelands – forests – disappearing decimated for firehood – fisheries depleted. Consequently many species face extinction.

Q: Explain Margaret Thatcher’s statement made by her, during the years of her Prime Ministership on the earth-as an ailing planet. Answer: ...We have to take care of our planet so that our children too may enjoy its bounty. We should not deplete and ruin the planet.

Q: Locate the lines in the text that support the title ‘The Ailing Planet’. Answer: “The earth’s vital signs reveal a patient in declining health. We have begun to realise our ethical obligations to be good stewards of the planet and responsible trustees of the legacy to future generations.”

Q: Justify the title of the essay. Answer: The planet earth is thought of as someone ailing i.e., sick. We need to restore the health of the planet.

Q: What is the Green Movement? Why has it become popular all over the world? Answer: Green Movement started in 1972 in New Zealand. It has informed the people that earth is a living organism which needs to be cared for. It tells us to co-operate and co-exist with other species. The green movement takes a holistic view of the situation and seeks to preserve environment as well as continuous development.

Q: What is the holistic and ecological view of the world that has emerged in recent times? Answer: The holistic and ecological view is that earth itself is an organism which needs to be cared for. It has its metabolic needs and vital processes which need to be respected and preserved. We need to save the earth for our future generations.

Q: What is the concept of ‘sustainable development’? Answer: The development which meets the needs of the present and at the same time preserves the environment for future generations is sustainable development.

Q: What is the status of the earth’s forest systems? Answer: Tropical forests are eroding at the rate of 40 to 50 million acres a year. We are losing one and a half acre of forests per second.

Q: Has the growth of world population contributed to the bad environment situation today? Answer: Due to population growth, great pressure is placed on natural resources. Natural resources like forests, rivers are getting depleted.

Q: We have not inherited this earth from our forefathers; we have borrowed it from our children. Elucidate keeping in mind the lesson ‘The Ailing Planet’. Answer: We need to practise sustainable development — development which meets the needs of the present and at the same time preserves the environment for future generations.

Q: What is the role of industries in the preservation of the environment? Answer: Industries have to exercise restraint about using natural resources. The top officers need to become guardians of the environment — control effluents — place filters on smoke emissions — take necessary steps.

Q: What was the significance of placing a mirror in the zoo at Lusaka, Zambia? Answer: It is to show human beings that they are the most destructive creatures. The most dangerous animal on earth.

Q: Explain the statement ‘forests precede mankind; deserts follow’. Answer: Forests help in nurturing mankind – man destroys forests so thoughtlessly that deserts grow where once forests flourished. Man destroys himself by destroying forests.

Q: “We have not inherited this earth from our forefathers; we have borrowed it from our children” Margret Thatcher’s words highlight the theme of the lesson ‘The Ailing Planet: The Green Movement’s Role. You feel very concerned about this earth which is being destroyed gradually. Write an article in about 100 words on ‘Save the Planet Earth.’ Answer:

Save the Planet Earth.

The picture is dismal. The vital systems of the earth are deteriorating due to overuse and pollution. We need to practise sustainable development which means development that meets the needs of the present and preserves the environment for future generations too. We need to preserve the fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands of the earth. It is equally important to control the growth of the population and act responsibly towards the earth.
Save the Planet Earth Margaret Thatcher’s statement about our planet makes a very valid point. It is the responsibility of each generation to use the resources of the earth judiciously. Today air, water, soil, trees and rivers are being consumed or polluted as if there will be no tomorrow.

Q: Why does Nani Palkhivala call the earth ‘The Ailing Planet’? How can the ailing planet survive? Answer: At present, the earth is like a patient. Her health is poor — her vital systems like forests and water are deteriorating and need to be brought back to health. — Preserve environment — planet for tomorrow — find alternatives. Environmental enrichment is possible –restraint in use is needed – replenishment of the four biological systems is needed – responsibility on the part of business and industry is needed. Awareness that we should leave earth’s resources for the future generations is essential.

Q: We have not inherited this earth from our forefathers; we have borrowed it from our children. Elucidate keeping in mind the lesson ‘The Ailing Planet: the Green Movement’s Role’ in about 100 words.

Answer: It is essential that we preserve the four principal biological systems of the earth–the fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands. So, we should plant trees for the future, take a holistic view of the environment and the planet and act with responsibility. This is what the Green Movement is all about.

Q: ‘No generation has a freehold on this earth. All we have is a life with a full repairing lease.’ Explain with reference to The Ailing Planet: the Green Movement’s Role. 
Answer: No generation can deplete the earth of its resources. The use of water, trees, minerals should be such that they are available to the coming generations too. Therefore, we should understand the concept of sustainable development i.e. development which meets the needs of the present and at the same time preserves the environment for future generations.

Q: The problems of overpopulation directly affect our everyday life. Discuss. Answer: Present world population is about 5-7 billion. Development is not possible if population increases. If population growth is controlled income and education of people increases. In uncontrolled population growth, the rich get richer and the poor poorer—family planning needs to be forced on people because large population promotes poverty. India’s population must be controlled.

Q: How are the earth’s principal biological systems being depleted? Answer: Four systems (a) Fisheries—their productivity is impaired—overfishing is common. (b) Forests are decimated for firewood, several species face extinction—forty to fifty million acres of forests are being eroded every year—we are losing one and a half acre of forests per second. (c) Grasslands and (d) croplands too are being depleted. These are being destroyed because of overuse by human beings.

Q: What is the concept of sustainable development? Why did it become greatly popular? Answer: Sustainable development — development which meets the needs of the present — and preserves the resources for the future. Concept became greatly popular because it showed a way to preserve environment – that if we cut we should plant trees too — We should keep the needs of the future generations in mind—fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands should not be overused. Q: How has the growth of world population affected the environment? Support your answer with suitable argument. Answer: Alarming growth of population – 2 billion in 1900. 20th century added 3.7 billion — resources of the world overstretched — four systems under stress. — only answer is development. Awareness can bring down population growth. Population control should be given topmost priority.

Q: What do you understand by the term ‘a holistic and ecological view’? Explain. Answer: Holistic and ecological view — a revolutionary concept – recognises earth as a living organism with its own metabolic needs which need to be preserved At present, the earth is like a patient. Her health is poor – her vital systems like forests and water are deteriorating and need to be brought back to health.

Q: Is there hope for environmental enrichment in future? What is needed to bring about the change from degradation to enrichment? Answer: Environmental enrichment is possible – restraint in use is needed – replenishment of the four biological systems is needed — responsibility on the part of business and industry is needed. Awareness that we should leave earth’s resources for the future generations is essential.

Q: “................The growth of the world population is one of the strongest factors distorting the future of human society” is the opinion of experts on world matters. Show in an essay of about 100 words how growing population can take the world back to prehistoric times. Answer:

The Ailing Planet
The startling fact is that in every four days, the world population rises by a million. The effect of uncontrolled population growth, in one word, is shortages of natural as well as man-made resources which will lead to bloody fights among individuals as well as among nations. Shortages of – food and water – petrol and other fuels – facilities for education – facilities for health care – housing These shortages will lead to the growth of : – poverty – conflict – moral degradation There is an urgent need to control population growth.

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